If you are to ask everyone what worries them the most about aging it is pretty definite that majority would say that they have always been afraid of memory loss. Forgetting things are a normal occurrence but the remaining question unanswered would be how much is too much? Are your memory lapses attributed to normal aging or is it an indicator of a certain memory-impairing disease?
So how to identify which is which?
Normal aging memory loss would not hinder you from having a normal life.
For instance, you forgot your colleague’s birthday and yet you remembered it a few hours later. Or maybe you missed a couple of appointments because you are busy doing your daily chores. These instances are generally manageable and will not impede you from living a full life, especially with your peers, family and friends. However, when these minor cases worsen over time and impair your ability to work, socialize and live independently, you may be already suffering from impairment of memory, reasoning, judgment and mental skills. Simply, memory loss is setting in.
People meet some simple signs in their daily life, but they don’t realize that those signs call for solutions to prevent them from getting worse. Those signs can be:
• Regularly forgetting where you left things you use, such as keys, glasses, books, etc.
• Forgetting names of acquaintances or blocking one memory with a similar one, such as calling a grandson by your son’s name.
• Occasionally forgetting an appointment.
• Having trouble remembering what you’ve just read, or the details of a conversation.
• Walking into a room and forgetting why you entered.
• Becoming easily distracted all the time.
• Not quite being able to retrieve information you have “on the tip of your tongue” (difficulty to recall common information).
LOW BRAIN PERFORMANCE RESULTING TO MEMORY DISORDERS
Some risk factors such as age and genetics cannot be changed. However, there is a continuous effort in improving brain performance and brain health to prevent possible dementia and Alzheimer’s disease—two of the most common memory loss diseases. Bronx Study (2001) has stressed that the “decrease in intellectual and memory capacity must be treated as early as possible”. The study aims to educate people to pay high attention to their memory disorder since the beginning or it will be too late when the problem is getting worse and a chance of having the disease is high when old age is hitting. Without proper prevention, the memory will develop from zero memory disorder to
Memory Loss Intervention
While a few lifestyle factors such as smoking and drinking too much alcohol also affect your brain function to some degree, there are major steps you should ensure to support better brain health:
• Ensure you get sufficient sleep as sleep deprivation sharply decreases the amount of information that can be held by the brain in short periods of time.
• Avoid too much sugar in your diet as excessive glucose affects your attention span, your short-term memory, and your mood stability and it increases free radical damage and inflammation of the brain (Teresa Aubele Ph.D., Why a Sugar High Leads to a Brain Low: Overindulgence in sweets can lead to five hours of hell, 2011).
• Avoid too much stress as it is one of your brain’s worst enemies. High levels of the stress hormone cortisol cause your brain to age prematurely and to literally shrink.
• Take brain-improving supplement that increases your cerebral blood flow and protect your brain from degeneration over time.
Think Smarter, Think EGb 761®
EGb 761®(standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba 761) comes from a single type of tree, a living fossil, the only remaining representative of its phylum; it contains chemical substances unknown in other living things. The flavonoid fraction accounts for 24% of the extract and terpenes (ginkgolides and bilobalide) for 6%. It acts in many different situations and organs, and exerts protective effect on neurodegenerative, sensory, and vascular diseases (Christen Y, Maixent JM, What is Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761? An overview: from molecular biology to clinical medicine, 2002).
EGb 761®, is the standardized extract of Ginkgo Biloba, approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) for its standard of Efficacy and Safety. Not all Gingko Bilobas are recognized as EGb 761®. To be EGb 761®, Gingko biloba must contain the active ingredients (flavones glycosidase, terpenes and ginkgolic acids) whose amounts meet the standard required by WHO. EGb 761® is the code name of highly purified and standardized special extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, the result of years of research to define the best composition of active constituents. The pharmaceutical qualities of EGb 761® have been well demonstrated over years; the safety profile of EGb 761® is also well-documented.
EGb 761® has the essential properties in strengthening memory capacity through helping develop greater performance of your brain, by its:
Normally the vessels are responsible for transporting all the necessary ingredients to feed the organs every day. To function well especially in memorizing, the brain surely needs the enough supply of oxygen, energy, glucose and others nutrients. EGb 761® helps dilate the cerebral vessels and better the blood flow so that all the in-need nutrition is delivered sufficiently to the brain.
Neurons are the smallest parts that constitute the nervous system. Hippocampus is a major component of the brain that is responsible for memorization in human organism. It is also composed of numerous neurons connecting one another as the very complex system. EGb 761® helps strengthen both structures and functions of neurons to get better in memorizing. Furthermore, EGb 761® has the effect against the aging of the neurons and to stimulate neurons to be able to adjust to the change of the environment.
So make it your habit to take EGb 761® regularly and into adulthood. You are sure to have that chance of a healthier brain so you can perform well with your mental skills in whatever aspects of your life—your work, social and family life or at school. Start assessing your mental health to prevent any onset of brain diseases such as Alzheimer and dementia. Of course, always rely on the supplement that are clinically tested and documented over many years safe and effective.
Our body’s joints are a complex combination of moving parts, which are prone to possible stress and injury whenever we perform physical activities. As such, people experience body pain most of the time. However, when body pain starts to interfere with our day-to-day routine at home or at work, we find it hard to cope with the stress of the pain. Workers who are exposed to rigorous and demanding labor are majority of people who experience frequent and severe body pain.
Work related pain is often accompanied by an escalating imbalance between work demands and individual resources, consequently affecting work ability. In line with this, workers exposed to highly repetitive and forceful exertion, lack of sufficient recovery, and awkward postures have an elevated risk of both impaired work ability and musculoskeletal disorders. Additionally, impaired work ability has been associated with loss of productivity, sickness absence, early retirement and all-cause mortality (Sundstrup E, Jakobsen MD, Brandt M, Jay K, Aagaard P, Andersen LL. Associations between biopsychosocial factors and chronic upper limb pain among slaughterhouse workers: cross sectional study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2016).
Manual laborers are among people who are frequently stressed over work-related pain. Industries that require manual working such as factories, construction and healthcare have over tens of millions of workers who mostly are considered to have the highest prevalence of musculoskeletal pain.
Forty percent of construction workers over age 50 had chronic back pain. Another 2012 study found that injured workers were 45% more likely to be diagnosed with common headache and muscle pain.
Common Pain Conditions related to Work
One of the most common reasons people miss work and a leading cause of disability worldwide is back pain. It can range from a dull, constant ache to a sudden, sharp pain that makes it hard to move. It can start quickly if you fall or lift something too heavy, or it can get worse slowly.
Headache disorders cause substantial productivity losses through absenteeism and impaired effectiveness at work. Exposure to direct sunlight for a long period time, lack of body fluid (water) easily contributes to headache.
Minor Physical Trauma
Minor physical trauma such as slipping off the floor or falling could instantly cause muscle pain.
Workers who often fail to seek medical attention should always be on-guard whenever any pain triggers. No one wants to be interrupted when they are working at their optimum energy. This is why people need a reliable, fast and longer lasting pain reliever. Most pain-reliever medications only offer short term relief. However, you can easily find in the market an extended release tablet that is technologically formulated to deal with pain more effectively than any common pain relieving medicine.
8-hour Extended Release Paracetamol
Acetaminophen is a common pain reliever and is in many different medicines. It is safe and effective when taken in right amount and dosage. The extended release 8-Hour acetaminophen is an analgesic and antipyretic agent that has been clinically proven to be effective for the temporary relief of minor aches and pains associated with the common cold, headache, toothache, muscular aches, backache, for the minor pain of arthritis, for the pain of menstrual cramps, and for the reduction of fever.
8-Hour paracetamol is recognized to address the importance of keeping an optimum performance of the body and mind while working. And yes, common muscle aches and pains associated with working can make people uncomfortable and prompt absenteeism.
The benefit of 8-hour paracetamol is its rapid onset of action and sustain pain relief due to its bi-layer configuration (immediate release and matrix formulation). While its immediate release action (IR) has a disintegration time of 17 seconds, onset action release at 17 minutes after intake, which lasts for 4 hours, its extended release’s matrix formulation (ER) is designed to slowly release after intake and will last for 8 hours. Since it is manufactured in 650mg, both actions are distributed into each 325mg caplets and you have over 8 hours of control where you are definitely secured of being relieved all day long.
The dosage recommendation of 8 -hour paracetamol is 1-2 caplets every 8 hours, which is equivalent to 1,850mg-3,900mg a day. The maximum dosage of paracetamol is 4,000mg/day.
Potency wise, it is comparable to Ibruprofen 400mg (potent (Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs or NSAID) but with less gastro-intestinal side effect.
Although incontinence is often caused by weakening, aging muscles, there are other causes that are treatable such as trigger from an illness or infection, a blockage in the urinary passage, or because your bladder can’t fully empty itself.
Bladder incontinence is a highly prevalent disease that has emotional, health, social and economic impacts in the daily lives of elderlies. Since people seemed a bit off when discussing this health condition, may myths have sprung around it, which probably made it harder for patients to understand their situation.
Though incontinence has always been chained to aging, a major myth states that decreasing the amount of liquids you drink will cure the problem. Well this notion is totally wrong! In fact, cutting back on beverages can lead to dehydration and other problems.
Incontinence is simply the inability to control one’s urination or defecation. Incontinence may start with a leakage of urine or feces and develop into a full blown case where there is no control whatsoever. Although incontinence is often caused by weakening, aging muscles, there are other causes that are treatable such as trigger from an illness or infection, a blockage in the urinary passage, or because your bladder can’t fully empty itself.
Stress incontinence is usually a leakage of urine when stress, such as a cough or sneeze, is exerted upon the body. Stress incontinence may also be triggered by pregnancy, childbirth and even menopause
Urge incontinence is when you leak urine just as you feel the urge to go – in other words, your body is not giving you the signal to pee early enough. Urge incontinence can be caused by bladder spasms or incomplete bladder contractions.
Overflow incontinence is actually a medical condition that can be remedied some of the time. This condition exists when the bladder fails to empty, fills up, and extra urine has no place to go except out.
This condition fleeting and may well be gone at one point in time. Infections, such as UTIs and colds with coughs or sneezing may cause this temporary type of incontinence.
This loss of bladder control, which is common in people 65 years of age and older, can be minimized with taking important steps such as decreasing or eliminating caffeine intake to help reduce bladder urges.
Caffeine can irritate and stimulate the bladder and cause urgent, frequent urination and increased urine production, she explained. Individuals who drink more than two caffeinated beverages a day should gradually reduce their caffeine intake to avoid possible withdrawal symptoms such as headache or sleepiness. Substituting non-caffeinated drinks in place of coffee, tea and colas can go a long way to reducing incontinence (Duke University, news release, May 2005).
Another thing to avoid is consuming too much alcohol and spicy food. People should also use “timed voiding” where they need to develop a regular schedule of urinating to help their bladders hold more urine and gradually increase the intervals between urination. You may be able to control urinary incontinence by strengthening your bladder muscles. Pelvic exercises and a regular urination schedule may help reduce leaking, as can certain medications, changes to diet, weight loss, implants or inserts, or surgery.
There are also recommended ways to manage incontinence. Doctors can prescribe medications that prevent unwanted bladder contractions. Some drugs also help the bladder to fully empty the bladder, as such, relaxing the muscles more. An implant may be also done where surgeons inject it into the area around the urethra and eventually helps close it to reduce stress incontinence.
“Being respectful, patient and forgiving are keys to a successful career in the showbiz industry,” said popular model and host Nov Sonita. Sonita has been enjoying successful stint in movies, television commercials and programs. At 25 years old, she has always enjoyed her career but being a host / emcee is closest to her heart.
Born in Phnom Penh, Sonita is the second of three siblings of her father, who is a commune office and her mother who has a small business at home. She graduated her secondary education in 2008 at the Bak Tuk High School and continued her bachelor’s degree up until sophomore year.
“I had no relatives from this industry nor did I received any support when I was starting. I remembered joining a competition in TV9’s Ms. Brizton when I was 11 and I had to hide everything from my parents. Eventually, I needed financial support for clothing and make-up so I had no choice but to tell them,” said Sonita.
Sonita, after winning 4th place on the said competition, delayed her showbiz career for a year to finish her senior year in high school. In 2009, she returned and bagged a phone modeling job.
“Suday Production saw what I can do and asked me to act in karaoke video. I was also sent to perform in Australia. I was contacted by famous author and performance leader at Bayon TV to be an actress in the movie “Dek Samleang Chit” and my name was slowly becoming a household name,” she attested.
As for her struggles in the industry, she said that to be an artist, one cannot avoid people who are imperious and racist because most artists are materialistic and they always want to show-off. “I am different. I don’t care about that. I like to be myself. I always remind myself to be respective, friendly, and forgiving. For example, I greet older people as well as veteran actors and I also smile to people younger than my age.”
Health-wise, she has always been careful of her health and beauty. “There are six tips that I am always fond of doing and I want to share them to the people: never skip breakfast; drink a lot of water because it helps our body to release the toxins; go to steam and wrap your skin with tamarind and UHT milk as it helps skin glow; use a natural face mask by combining honey, white egg and lemon and apply on face twice a week; exercise by running on a machine, weightlifting, and attending yoga; and eat more vegetable, fish and stay away from fatty foods.
Renowned British film icon and humanitarian, Audrey Hepburn, once implied that the beauty of a woman is not in seen physically but is reflected in her soul. Yes, passion and caring leaves a big mark in people but most will certainly consider that looking good as well on the outside, most especially while aging, will not only make them feel good but also reflect self-confidence and positivity towards other people.
Arteries carry blood from the heart around the body, providing oxygen tour body organs including our muscles. Meanwhile, our veins carry the blood back. Veins have valves that act as one-way flaps to prevent blood from flowing backwards as it moves up our legs.
If the valves become damaged or weak, blood can leak back into the veins and collect there, eventually contributing to varicose veins.
Varicose veins may be unpleasant but they are a fact of life and most of us will suffer from them. Many think that varicose veins are harmless - are they really?
It develops when your vein walls become weak and results in the formation of
pools of blood, leading to spider veins. With medical science and technology developing at a rapid pace, getting rid of unsightly veins is not a problem anymore.
There are several active ingredients considered useful in the vessels and restoring healthy walls, and while in most cases varicose veins can be just a cosmetic issue but in some circumstances, however, they can also cause throbbing, aching, and itching. Advanced cases cause swelling (particularly with prolonged standing and sitting), dermatitis, and thickened skin. End stages can cause open sores but most patients do not get to that stage. Only 10 percent of patients go on to have advanced complications from varicose veins.
Here’s the thing about varicose veins: They only get worse over time—but they don’t have to. One simple treatment can be all it takes to make them go away, something widely available at local pharmacies. Today, we deal with why varicose veins are something you need to address, sooner rather than later.
Haematoma and Bruising
A haematoma is a bruise which becomes hard, due to the blood clotting in a localized area (such as a muscle), and you may need to see a doctor to get this drained off. A bruise is caused by an injury to soft tissue, resulting in bleeding under your skin from damaged blood vessels. It can cause the area to swell or feel tender. The bruise is initially red or purple and then changes to yellow or green as it fades.
Factors that can increase your chance of bruising include:
• getting older
• being thin and having less fat underneath your skin
• certain medications such as corticosteroids (e.g. prednisone), aspirin, warfarin and anti-inflammatory medicines (e.g. ibuprofen, diclofenac)
• having certain blood conditions when you bleed more easily
Both a hematoma and normal bruising are caused by bleeding in the space under the skin. Patients with hematomas can easily become more swollen or distended from the underlying collection of blood. However, there are other complications that require medical attention should a regular bruising, i.e, suffer from pain or have difficult in moving; there may be damage, such as a fracture or sprain underneath. There are different signs one should watch out for and seek medical consultation straight away:
• if the bruise covers a large area
• if the area becomes very swollen or the bruise becomes hard
• if the bruise does not go away within 2 weeks
• if bruising occurs easily or for no obvious reason
• if you are taking medicines, particularly warfarin, aspirin or anti-inflammatory medicines, and notice you are bruising more easily or more extensively than you were before
Spider veins are also a form of varicose veins. Spider veins are just dilated veins in the surface of the skin that are generally just a cosmetic issue. Varicose veins are in the fat between muscle and skin. However, the pressure from varicose veins may cause spider veins to occur, especially in the ankle area. To clearly identify the distinction between varicose veins and spider veins you should remember that while varicose veins are thick, ropey and stretched-out, spider veins are small, thin blue blood vessels that are seen under the skin.
Immediate medical attention should be done if the spider veins are causing pain or discomfort or if you have been using steroid creams, as these may be the cause.
Mucopolysaccharide Polysulphate (MPS) cream
Superficial thrombophlebitis remains a common complication of continuous intravenous infusion and is mostly associated with considerable pain and discomfort at the site of the infusion. Thus, topical treatments such as one with Mucopolysaccharide polysulphate (MPS), limit the extension of the process, which eventually relieves pain and shortens the course of the disease.
MPS, a naturally occurring organoheparinoid compound, has been used in medicine for over 50 years as an anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent for the treatment of numerous conditions, including osteoarthritis, thrombophlebitis, and for thromboembolism prophylaxis (T. Kumokawa, K. Hirata, K. Sato, and S. Kano, “Dermal absorption of mucopolysaccharide polysulfate (heparinoid) in human and minipig,” Arzneimittel-Forschung, 2011).
Skin permeability of MPS has been demonstrated by the achievement of therapeutic systemic effects, including prevention and treatment of local symptoms associated with peripheral vascular disorders, following topical administration (K. Spohn and G. Peschel, Der Chirurgn, 1951.)
MPS key actions include improvement in blood flow to the injured area, promotion of tissue regeneration by enhancement of the production of glycosaminoglycans in the connective tissue matrix, improvement of the moisturizing capacity of the skin by increasing the content of hyaluronic acid, and acceleration of the resorption of haematomata (Hoppensteadt DA, Fareed J, Raake P, Raake W. Endogenous release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor by topical application of an ointment containing mucopolysaccharide polysulfate to nonhuman primates. Thrombosis Research 2001). Most importantly, its anti-inflammatory properties play a role in the reduction of pain and swelling after trauma.
There are also preventive measures you can adopt such as resting in short intervals if your work entails you standing for a long period of time, keeping your weight in check, sitting properly and not having your legs crossed all the time to improve blood circulation as well as eating a diet high in protein, fiber and nutrients!
With age, your brain shrinks in size and cognition also reduce; this leads to memory loss, problem-solving issues, and thinking and language issues. Time has been changed. Your role has been altered. Your health status has been differed. While looking over the past, you often remember some good times along with some bad memories. You’ve been powerful and successful women throughout your life. But, after crossing 60, you are noticing the significant forgetfulness issue. This is not the end yet, your intellectual abilities are also suffering, making your life difficult so far. What is it? Is this something very serious? What to do now?
With the age, your brain shrinks in size and the cognition also reduce, this leads to the memory loss, problem-solving issues, and thinking and language issues. This condition is referred as dementia, which is the cardinal sign of Alzheimer’s disease. This disease is too much common in all over the world, regardless, what your gender is.
But, the pinpoint over here is that several studies have confirmed that women are more tend to have an Alzheimer’s than men. In fact, it is estimated that around 5 million people are living with Alzheimer’s in the US, of which, 3.2 million are women. Also, 72% Canadian women are living with Alzheimer’s. In fact, another study concluded that women in their 60’s have double risks of developing the Alzheimer’s than the breast cancer. Though, the risk is higher in women, but hey! Don’t take this on your head too much! All you need to do is to observe any unusual symptom and consult with a doctor for getting the earlier diagnosis and better plan for future.
Alzheimer’s disease-impairments just started
Over the course of the time, brain cells die due to the neurodegenerative process. As the brain cell’s death progress, your brain starts to develop the proteins named as tangles and plaques. Tangles are formed within the brain cells, whereas, the plaques are found as a connection between the dying cells. With the help of these proteins, the nerve cells deteriorate and implode, losing the brain tissues.
The dearth of the chemical messengers also occurs. As chemical messengers are responsible for transmitting the signals across the brain, the shortage of the chemical messengers can worsen the condition.
Alzheimer’s can’t be reversed back; it’s a progressive disease. But, it doesn’t mean that you can’t control or manage the progression, yet, there are several ways to help you out regarding the Alzheimer’s disease.
Women are most likely to develop Alzheimer’s than men
Though, some studies revealed that the women live longer than men, but on the other end of the spectrum, it is also concluded through several researches that women develop Alzheimer’s more frequently as compared to men. Because, mitochondria (powerhouse of energy) are protected with the special protein in women, it starts to decline with the age. As a result, the brain cells lost and dementia occurs.
Researchers at the Stanford University of Medicine concluded that a specific gene, APOE-E4 is responsible for the onset of the Alzheimer’s in women. This gene is also found in men, but women carrying APOE-E4 gene are more prone towards the Alzheimer’s. In fact, it is stated that one in seven people are carrying the copy of this gene.
Furthermore, the researchers added that this gene is latent in men, but, its opposite in women. Hence, you should be cautious about the earlier signs and symptoms of the Alzheimer’s.
Risk factors you should look for (other than being woman)
Alzheimer’s is not just related to old age, yet, younger-onset of Alzheimer’s is also commonly seen nowadays. After crossing 40, you’re more predispose towards many health related to the issue, rather it is dementia or heart disease.
Along with genetic inheritance, your lifestyle and health issues also play a vital role in developing dementia. People living with diabetes, heart problems, stroke, hypertension, obesity and high cholesterol in mid-life have the higher risks of Alzheimer’s disease as well as vascular dementia.
Depression is another problem that sets the stage for the Alzheimer’s. Needless to say that smoking and unhealthy diet are also the contributing factors of the Alzheimer’s disease. However, by getting control over these factors, you can reduce the risk of dementia.
So, from now onward, try to notice that which issue is becoming troublesome and how can you manage it. It’s better to consult with your doctor for further advice and evaluation.
Earlier the symptoms are detected, better will be the treatment approach!
Undoubtedly, memory loss is a huge symptom itself, but, you should know about other cardinal alarms as well. According to Raj C. Shah, MD at Rush Memory Clinic in Chicago, ‘A symptom alone doesn’t significantly indicate about the Alzheimer’s or dementia’. Hence, it’s better not to dismiss other symptoms too.
Besides with the memory loss, difficulty in solving any problem and confusion with time or place are another important indicator of the Alzheimer’s. People with Alzheimer’s also frequently find the completion of daily task much harder.
Though, as you ages, you would take the time to distinguish the visual image and understand the spatial orientation, but, if you’re finding difficulty in reading, determining color and contrast and distance judging, then you should go for the further investigation.
You may also have a problem while joining or continuing a new conversation. If you’re stopping in the middle of the conversation and become blank in the meanwhile, then, it is surely indicating about something serious- Alzheimer’s.
Loving the isolation and making the poor judgment are also common in people living with Alzheimer’s. Replacing things and can’t track them back is also an important symptom. And, of course, the mood and personality might be changed so far. They tend to have the depressed, suspicious, anxious and confused state.
If you’re finding most of the symptoms in your daily routine, fix the appointment with the doctor as immediately as you can.
Must know the Line of treatment
After the complete medical screening conducted by the General Physician, you would go through with several specified tests and measures of the Alzheimer’s. Pen-and-paper test is the most common tool used for assessing the person’s mental condition. If the results of the test won’t be positive, your doctor may ask you to have a brain scan so that the further evaluation of the disease can be done.
Besides with the medicines, other conservative techniques have been developed to help the people living with Alzheimer’s. Talking therapy could be helpful for inducing the positivity in the depressed person. Using electronic devices like the calendars and alarms can aid in coping with the memory issues.
To get engaged in the activities like, reading the books and playing with the puzzles will work as the mind exercises. All these exciting therapies are used parallel with the medical treatment in all the countries.
An ounce of Prevention is worth a pound of cure!
By adding the preventive measures, you can taper down the risks of the Alzheimer’s disease. Exercise can improve the brain volume and reduce the risks of the Alzheimer’s by 50%, according to the Journal of Alzheimer’s disease. Exercise has many, many benefits that you won’t even imagine. Even scientists from University Hospital Esse, Germany reported that exercising during pregnancy can help to protect the baby from Alzheimer’s. Include 30-minute walk in your daily routine from today to fight with the Alzheimer’s.
Don’t forget to eat the handful of blueberries for minimizing the risks. Since blueberries are the superfood, it is packed with a variety of the nutrients to maintain the brain volume. Mediterranean diet is very much effective for providing the protection against the brain aging. Prefer the Mediterranean diet over the low-fat diet.
Get the adequate sleep, because sleep deficiency can gear up the risk of Alzheimer’s.
Archives of Internal Medicine published a study, concluding that heavy smoking can increase the risk of Alzheimer’s by 157%. Quit the smoking immediately, because it will not leave a bad impact on your lungs, in fact, it is damaging each tissue of your body, including the brain tissues.
So, will you consider the above-listed measures seriously? Just think for a while!
Small Insect, Big BiteInterview on Malaria with Dr. Benoit Witkowski,Malaria Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Pasteur Institut du Cambodge
After speaking with Dr. Philippe Dussart in our April issue about the exciting development and launching of dengue vaccines in a few countries, Healthwise Digest was thrilled to talk to Dr. Benoit Witkowski, the research assistant at the Malaria molecular Epidemiology Unit of Institut du Paster Cambodge. Dr. Witkowski discussed the impact of malaria in Asian countries, as well as the present Malaria prevalence in the country.
Healthwise Digest (HD): Would you give us an overview of Malaria?
Dr. Benoit Witkowski (Dr. Benoit): Malaria is a name of a blood disease that is very prevalent in tropical areas such as SE Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and South America. It may affect any people that live in these places and travelers. Malaria is caused by an organism classified as protozoa which are transmitted by mosquitoes. The organism that causes malaria is a parasite, which means it needs a host to survive and develop. There are five different species that can infect a human. Mosquitoes that transmit malaria are Anopheles mosquito. Malaria could be transmitted in time of mosquito blood meal, which occurs for Anopheles at night time.
HD: What are the main issues in malaria control?
Dr. Benoit: It depends on of considered area. For example in Africa, the very high prevalence of malaria in population is the main issue. In Cambodia, the issue for malaria control is mostly antimalarial drug resistance.
HD: What are the possible symptoms one can suffer from when s/he’s infected with Malaria?
Dr. Benoit: The most common symptom is fever. there is also other symptoms, more detectable by biology and responsive medical investigations, such as anemia. Alteration of consciousness and even coma can also be a symptom of malaria and could lead to patient death.
HD: What is the present standing of the disease in Cambodia compared with other countries?
Dr. Benoit: If you compare Cambodia to Africa, which is the main ground for Malaria, the prevalence is very low here. But what is typical in Cambodia and to Southeast Asian countries is the ability of the parasite to resist the treatment. It’s quite common to see patients returning for new treatment because of malaria recurrence because the treatment received beforehand was not efficient enough.
HD: What is the prevalence status of Cambodia today compared to previous years?
Dr. Benoit: There is a decrease of malaria prevalence in Cambodia over years. This is the result of the high involvement of Ministry of Health (MOH) and National Malaria Center (CNM) in reduction of malaria. Next step would be malaria eradication in Cambodia, it is a priority of the government. This will be difficult and it will be important to develop strategies that will enable to circumvent parasite resistance before completely eliminate malaria.
(HD): What basic preventive measures one can use to avoid malaria infection?
Dr. Benoit: The most important measure is to avoid infection by limiting mosquito bites with the use of repellent and nets. Drug prophylaxis and preventive treatments may be use in certain cases such like for pregnant women and travelers. There is still ongoing development of malaria vaccine but it is far from 100% efficacy.
HD: Who are the vulnerable members of the society?
Dr. Benoit: Unlike Africa, where people may experience urban transmission of malaria, here in Cambodia is different because mosquitoes are different and the transmission of malaria in Cambodia is restricted to forest area. People working in forests is thus the main population at risk to the disease. Consequently, malaria in Cambodia is more common in young adults since they represent majority of people working in forest area. Nevertheless, malaria may affect every people and is more severe for nonimmune individuals and pregnant women.
HD: What is the most important thing the public should know about malaria?
Dr. Benoit: It is important to present simple description of how you can get malaria, what are its symptoms and the treatments available. In Cambodia, most people are aware of the disease but it would be highly relevant to make pedagogy for populations at risk for malaria, at a school level, perhaps.